Outliers and Robustness

One problem that we face in analyzing data is the presence of outliers, i.e. a data element that is much bigger or much smaller than the other data elements.

For example, the mean of the sample {2, 3, 4, 5, 6} is 4, while the mean of {2, 3, 4, 5, 60} is 14.4. The appearance of the 60 completely distorts the mean in the second sample. Some statistics, such as the median, are more resistant to such outliers. In fact, the median for both samples is 4.

For this example it is obvious that 60 is a potential outlier. In Identifying Outliers and Missing Data we show how to identify potential outliers using a data analysis tool provided in the Real Statistics Resource Pack.

Excel Function: One approach for dealing with outliers is to throw away data that is either too big or too small. Excel provides the TRIMMEAN function for dealing with this issue.

TRIMMEAN(R, p) – calculates the mean of the data in the range R after first throwing away p% of the data, half from the top and half from the bottom. If R contains n data elements and k = the largest whole number ≤ np/2, then the k largest items and the k smallest items are removed before calculating the mean.

For example, suppose R = {5, 4, 3, 20, 1, 4, 6, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 3, 7, 2}. Then TRIMMEAN(R, 0.2) works as follows. Since R has 15 elements, k = INT(15 * .2 / 2) = 1. Thus the largest element (20) and the smallest element (1) are removed from R to get R′ = {5, 4, 3, 4, 6, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 3, 7, 2}. TRIMMEAN now returns the mean of this range, namely 4.385 instead of the mean of R which is 5.2.

A related approach is to use Winsorized samples, in which the trimmed values are replaced by the remaining highest and lowest values. Consider the following sample:

4, 6, 10, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 25, 27, 27, 31, 37, 38, 40, 44, 45, 48, 50, 80

A 10% trimmed sample would simply remove the two lowest and two highest elements (i.e. 4, 6, 50, 80). A 10% Winsorized sample replaces the two lowest elements by the third lowest and the two highest by the 3rd highest, resulting in the following data set:

10, 10, 10, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 25, 27, 27, 31, 37, 38, 40, 44, 45, 48, 48, 48

Observation: Since 4 data elements have been replaced, the degrees of freedom of any statistical test needs to be reduced by 4.

Real Statistics Functions: The Real Statistics Resource Pack supplies the following functions:

TRIMDATA(R1, p): array function which returns a column range equivalent to R1 after removing the lowest and highest p/2 % of the data values.

WINSORIZE(R1, p): array function which returns a column range which is the Winsorized version of R1 removing the lowest and highest p/2 % of the data values.

WINMEAN(R1, p) = Winsorized mean of the data in range R1 removing the lowest and highest p/2 % of the data values.

Example 1: Find the trimmed and Winsorized data for p = 30% for the data in range A4:A23 of Figure 1. Also find the trimmed and Winsorized means.

Trimmed and Winsorized data

Figure 1 – Trimmed and Winsorized Data

Range C4:C23 contains the trimmed data in range A4:A23 using the formula


The trimmed mean (cell C24) can be calculated using either of the formulas

=TRIMMEAN(A4:A23,.3) or =AVERAGE(C4:C17)

Range E4:E23 contains the Winsorized data in range A4:A23 using the formula


The Winsorized mean (cell E24) can be calculated using either of the formulas

=WINMEAN(A4:A23,.3) or =AVERAGE(E4:E23)

60 Responses to Outliers and Robustness

  1. Nik says:

    Any suggestions on implementing a Windsorized analysis in Excel?
    I can do it manually for a fixed set of data, but I prefer to automate the process, as I tend to use large Tables to hold all of my data and then use functions on a separate sheet to analyze the entire Table.

    • Charles says:

      The easiest way I can think of is to first Winsorize the data and then perform the usual a analyses. I will add this capability to the next release of the Real Statistics Resource Pack.

      Update: This capability has now been added to the Real Statistics Resource Pack in Release 2.16.

  2. Monica says:

    Hi Charles,

    I am using the Winsorize function but keep getting the “#VALUE” error message (wrong data type error). My spreadsheet has only numeric data and I trimmed all the blank spaces. Any suggestion what I should do? Thanks.

    • Charles says:

      Hi Monica,
      Yes there is an error in the software. Besides fixing the error, based on your input, I am changing the way the WINSORIZE and TRIMDATA functions work. I plan to issue a bug-fix release (Rel 2.17.1) today with these changes. Thanks for your help.

  3. Jeff says:

    Hello Charles,

    There are a number methods for identifying outliers. The one I have used is Grubbs which in most cases is reasonable. It is not recommended this be used sequentially to remove more than one outlier.
    What would be particularly useful would be a method where datum can be removed sequentially, providing a measure of significance at each step, to nomalize a data set.

    Your thoughts?
    Best Regards,

    • Charles says:

      I plan to add Grubbs’ test to the software shortly.
      I understand that Tietjen-Moore test can be used with more than one outlier, but I need to look at in more detail.

    • Charles says:

      The Generalized Extreme Studentized Deviate Test is a generalization of Grubbs and probably does most of what you are looking for.

    • Charles says:

      I have now implemented Grubbs’ test and its extension the ESD Test in Rel 3.3 of the Real Statistics Resource Pack.

  4. Martha says:


    is the formula “winsorize” supposed to be already installed in excel? In my excel 2007 it’s somehow not. I also installed your resources pack – but couldn’t find the formula there either but only the function of how to identify outliers.

    Thank you for your support

    • Charles says:

      The WINSORIZE function has been part of the Real Statistics Resource since Release 2.16 in July 2014. Keep in mind that this is a function and will not appear in the list of data analysis tools.

  5. Mohammad says:

    Hi Charls,

    I simply can not understand how it is possible to get an array of winsorize function when one range of numbers for all are taken.

    When I used =WINSORIZE(A4:A23,.3) I always get just 3, 3, 3,… instead of 3, 4, 6, 9,…

    Can you explain?


    • Charles says:

      Since WINSORIZE is an array function, you need to press Ctrl-Shift-Enter (i.e. hold down the Control and Shift keys and then press the Enter key). If you just press the Enter key you will get the result that you are seeing.

  6. Maria says:

    Hi Charles,

    I have the same problem with the WINSORIZE command as Mohammad. Unfortunately, it doesn’t work despite Ctrl-Shift-Enter. Are there any other things I overlooked?

    Thank you very much for your help!

    • Charles says:

      I just checked and it certainly works on my computer. When you try to use the WINSORIZE function what sort of result do you get? An error value? a single number?
      Make sure that you enter the formula in the form WINSORIZE(R1, p) where R1 is a range and p is a number between 0 and .5. Also make sure that you enter the formula into a range which contains a sufficient number of cells to hold the answer (if in doubt highlight a range of similar size to R1). Also don’t enter the formula into any cells that overlap with range R1.

      • Heike says:


        I have the same problem with the WINSORIZE command as Mohammed and Maria. Unfortunately, the Ctrl-Shift-Enter also doesn’t work. Can you help me?

        Kind Regards

        • Charles says:

          Ctrl-Shift-Enter is how Excel recognizes an array formula. This doesn’t have anything to do with the Real Statistics Resource Pack, and so if this doesn’t work then your Excel software is flawed. Since I doubt this is true, please provide me with some more details so that I can better determine the problem. If you like you can send me an Excel spreadsheet with your data and what you have done and I can try to figure out what has gone wrong.

          • Heike says:


            Thank you for your response.
            =WINSORIZE($BS$2:$BS$6149;0,02), this is what I use. It is a quite big excel file. In every cell I get the same as in the first cell. Could it be a problem that my excel is in dutch?


  7. Timo Tuomivirta says:

    Greeting Charles,

    I have problem in locking the cells. I suppose the array of comparison should be same for all the cells?

    Gives same value to all the cells. Same with

    Should i use for cell locking € symbol? My country belongs to EuroZone.

    • Charles says:

      Even if your country uses the euro you should still use the dollar sign $ for absolute addressing.

      • Timo T says:

        Greetings Charles,

        Heh heh yes, yes. In that case I think I am not sure am I using the trimdata formula correctly.

        formula {=TRIMDATA($F$2:$F$169;0,03)} gives same number/result for each cell. I use the formula identically for each cell from 2 to 169.

        Thing is that I am not sure how the array works in general..

        If range is F2:F169 and I input the results of function into H2:H169 then for row 2 the formula should be for each cell anyway the same?

        What I mean to ask is that is this trimming certain amount of percentage from population or from value?

        I need to trim certain percentage from population outliners.

        It would be great if you could add an video and clarify the usage of the formula in the video :). Anyway, I appreciate your time to answer and great that this package is free =)

        • Charles says:


          Suppose your input data is placed in the range F2:F169. This range consists of 168 cells. .03 times 169 = 5.04. Half of this value is 2.52. You need to round down to the nearest integer, namely 2. This means that in calculating {=TRIMDATA($F$2:$F$169;0,03)} the lowest two values in F2:F169 will be replaced by blanks and the highest two values in F2:F169 will be replaced by blanks.

          If you highlight the range H2:H169 and enter the formula {=TRIMDATA($F$2:$F$169;0,03)} and then press Ctrl-Shft-Enter the values in range H2:H169 will be identical to the values in range F2:F169 except that the lowest two values will be replaced by blanks and the highest two values will be replaced by blanks.

          Note also that =AVERAGE(H2:H169) will have the same value as =TRIMMEAN(F2:F169:0,03).

          Please see the webpage Array Functions and Formulas for more information about how to use array formulas in general.


  8. icha says:

    Hi charles,

    Can you tell me step by step how to WINSORIZED the data?
    I’d already follow your step but still doesn’t work. My data’s range C2 : C499


    • Charles says:

      I don’t know why you aren’t able to get the winsorize process to work. The steps are described on the referenced webpage. In any case, if you send me an Excel file with your data I will try to see why you aren’t able to winsorize your data.

  9. Tanja Jensen says:

    Hi Charles,

    I would like to winsorize my outliers (identified by outlier labelling rule), but I am unsure which number I should replace them with because of my experimental design. Two groups have been measured four times. Should I replace the outliers with 1) the highest/lowest value in the entire dataset 2) the highest/lowest value in the data from the group where the outlier was found or 3) the higest/lowest value in the data from the group and particular time point where the outlier was found.

    Hope this makes sense.

    Best regards,

    • Charles says:

      As usual, it really depends on how you will use the data subsequently, especially based on which tests you will run. E.g. if you are going to analyze the data by group, then probably choice 2 is the right one. I am not sure what choice 3 means.

  10. Frank says:

    Hello Charles:

    I located your site (and the software you have, thank you) when attempting to calculate a Standard Deviation using trimmed data. Needless to say this was an exercise in futility with native Excel 2007 (later releases don’t help here either).

    I have downloaded and installed you software and am encountering a problem using one of the functions TrimData. Before I describe the error I will first describe the data being used.

    The data is stock data (about 7000 entries) which has been downloaded and loaded into a table. Various calculations are performed on a row by row basis and stored in various columns, one of which is a calculated percent. The data in this column is then placed (copied) in other columns (of which there are 10) based upon the price range that the stock falls into (<<$5, $5-$10, $10-$25,…) and are labeled in the table according to a category number that corresponds to the price range (Cat1, Cat2, Cat3, …). Given the above that would mean only 1 column in any 1 row would have data and the others would be blank.

    It is each one of these columns that I would like get the Standard Deviation after the data has been trimmed. To trim the data I created 1 more column (to become 10 once I get it working) and added the TrimData function into the first cell of the newly created column with the intent to copying it to the remaining cells in that row.

    I've tried various formats of the TrimData and get #Value error or a syntax error depending on the format used. Below are the various syntax used and the results:

    1. =trimdata([Cat1],0,3) #Value! error
    2. {=trimdata([Cat1],0,3)} #Value! error
    3. =trimdata(Table36[Cat1],0,3) #Value! error
    4. {=trimdata(Table36[Cat1],0,3)} #Value! error
    5. =trimdata(T11:T17,0,3) #Value! error Data contain a blank in the columns
    6. {=trimdata(T11:T17,0,3)} #Value! error "" ""
    7. =trimdata(T13:T17,0,3) #Value! error Data did not contain a blank in the columns
    8. {=trimdata(T13:T17,0,3)} #Value! error "" ""

    I also tried several of the above using a ";" (as Timo had in his entry) and a ":" (which you used in your response to Timo).

    I used an [Enter] and a [CTL+SHFT+Enter] for all of the various formulas.

    I assume I am doing something wrong here but I can not see it.

    My intent here is to use the results of the trimmed data as input to the STDEV or SDDEVP. Once this is working I will experiment with the other trimming techniques you have supplied in this software.

    Can you please help?

    Thank you for your assistance and for providing this software.

  11. Doyle says:

    I was unable to get your functions to work as expected. The macros installed just fine, but they don’t seem to give correct results. It would be very beneficial is you published an example .xlsx file that contains the example you gave in the article. That way I could look at your working example and figure out what I did wrong.

    • Charles says:

      You can download an Excel file with all the examples on the website from the webpage Download Examples.

      • Doyle says:

        Ah, that helps. Discovered my first problem is that the equations are not compatible with Excel tables.

        Even without tables I still cannot reproduce your functionality. The input range to the Winsorize() function shifts on each cell. (e.g. it’s A1:A10 on the first cell, A2:A11 on the second, etc.)

        And if I fix it in place using the $A$1 notation then all cells have the same value.

        Any thoughts?

        • Charles says:


          The WINSORIZE function is an array function. If for example your data is in range A1:A10 and you want to display the result in range C1:C10, you need to highlight range C1:C10 and enter the formula =WINSORIZE(A1:A10,.4) (here I have set the p value to .4) and press Ctrl-Shft-Enter.

          To get more information about how you use array formulas and functions in Excel, refer to the webpage
          Array formulas and functions


  12. Valentine says:

    Hello Charles,

    I used your formula “{=winsorize(A$1:A$62780, 0.03)}”
    When I drag it down, I have the same answer for every cells.
    This might be due to the range of cells to hold the answer..

    How can I properly select the range of cell to hold the results (and therefore, get the desired results)

    Hope you understand my issue.

    Thank you,

    • Charles says:


      Suppose you want to place the output in range C1:C62780. Since WINSORIZE is an array formula, you need to highlight the full range C1:C62780, enter the formula WINSORIZE(A$1:A$62780, 0.03) and press Ctrl-Shift-Enter.

      The result will copy all the values from A1:A62780 replacing the low and high values by blanks.


  13. Andri says:

    Hi Charles,

    Thanks for sharing your AddInst. I believe many people feel this is very useful for them. However, I got an issue relating winsorizing. I tried to winsorize my data with 1% (percentile 1% and 99%). I typed =WINSORIZE($C$2:$C$993,.01) using your AddIns and it was going well. However, after comparing the value produced by Excel (the value of 1% and 99% percentile) and the result of the AddIns I found them different. Could you help me what causing the difference?

    Thanks in advance for your assistance.

    • Charles says:


      The WINSORIZE function is an array function, which outputs the values to retain after Winsorizing data. Excel has a WINMEAN function which outputs a single value which should be the mean of the values produced by the WINSORIZE function. Thus the result of AVERAGE(WINSORIZE($C$2:$C$993,.01)), after pressing Ctrl-Shift-Enter, should be the same as WINMEAN($C$2:$C$993,.01), after pressing Enter.

      If you send me an Excel file with your data, I can check to see whether there is a problem.


  14. Azimah says:

    Hi charles..
    Thank you providing me some information about winsorize data.
    I need your help with my data collection. I want to evaluate data by using logistic regression but my independent variables are continuous data. So it have outliers and spikes.
    My questions is when I choose to winsorize my data, how to determine the value of p? are the value of p is same as each variables or refer to the outliers?

    i give you example of my data.

    [0.0789 0.0743 0.0698 0.0758 0.0870 0.0767 0.0720 0.0781 0.0752 0.0695 0.0832 0.0869 0.0828 0.0777 0.0814 0.0751 0.0592 0.0661 0.0696 0.0624 0.0574 0.0457 0.0559 0.0572 0.0607 0.968 0.899 0.969 0.839 0.804 0.078 0.069 0.080 0.081 0.083 0.102 0.091 0.108 0.102 0.102 0.092 0.092 0.083 0.085 0.091 0.088 0.084 0.091 0.088 0.098 0.066 0.071 0.074 0.074 0.090]

    how i decide the value of p?
    can u help me?

  15. Phillip says:

    Good afternoon Charles,

    I am learning a lot through this web course, but I am still having some issues that I hope you can easily address.

    I have a data set of 25-50 data points. I want to run the grubbs outlier test on this data set and then have it report the numbers that are not outliers. The results of this will then be used to calculate the average.

    For example: {1,2,3,4,5,10} is my data set, after finding the grubbs outlier {10} and removing that number from my calculations, the average is 3.

    How might I achieve my desired results using an Excel spreadsheet. Thank you in advance for any advice you may provide.

  16. Sohail says:

    hi Charles
    I’m trying to do a one way anova test. when I use my original data the k-s test and leven’s test are ok but the result of my anova test is not meaningful. when I replace my outliers (extreme values) or transformed them the result my anova test becomes meaningful but not the levene’s test which is a problem because Homogeneity of Variances is one of the conditions of one way anova test in the first place.
    don’t really know what to do? thanks

    • Charles says:

      Hi Sohail,

      When you say “meaningful” do you mean “significant” or “not significant” or something else?

      It sounds like you get different results based on whether or not you include some outliers. This is a plausible outcome and is a credible result from the tests. You should now focus on whether the “outliers” represent normal random outcomes (e.g. in say 500 observations, you expect some outliers) or some problem (in measurement or something else). If the outliers represent normal events, then I would use your first result. If not I would use both results, unless you can find some way to remove the causes of the outliers.


      • Sohail says:

        yes sorry by meaningful I meant significant
        so if I replace my outliers I have to redo the Levene’s test and the k-s test with the new data set? cant’t I use the original data for the Levene’s test and the K-S test and replace the outliers only for the one way anova test?
        Thank you for your help

        • Charles says:

          It is not clear to me why you need to use the KS test at all.
          In any case, if you change your data, then you need to check normality (presumably using Shapiro-Wilk) and homogeneity of variances (e.g. Levene’s test) for this data. You are probably ok provided the variances are not too unequal, but if they are then you mighyt want to consider using Welch’s ANOVA test instead of the usual ANOVA.

  17. Mindaugas says:

    Hi Charles,

    installed everything succesfully, but once i run winsorize fuction, only bottom top 5% are adjusted, but top range remains untouched. do you know what might be the issue?

  18. kajol says:

    hi charles
    I am working on excel 2007
    I want to find outliers in the data as a assignment but not gettng the function trimmean
    can you tell me

  19. Louis Delamarre says:

    Hi Charles
    Thank you again for this excellent website, the resource pack and your availability concerning one of my problems you fixed recently regarding Kendall W.
    I have a question regarding a set of data containing missing data at random and potential outliers that potentially impact the multiple regression i processed on the dataset, using only listless deletions that really shrieked the sample size.

    To look for a better fitting multiple regression model, i’d like to apply the methods you describe regarding missing data and outliers.
    But should I first perform identification (+/- removal and replacement) of outliers using winsorize (for exemple) and then multiple imputation using FCS for missing data?
    or the opposite? (could it creates a bias in the multiple imputation?)

    and by the way, once the multiple imputation process is done as you describe it in your website, how can i manage to finally replace the missing data by the new data generated through the MI to run a new series of analysis?

    Thank you very much for your help.

    • Charles says:

      I don’t know for sure, but it probably depends on the nature of the outliers. If the outliers are errors in data collection or reporting, then you should probably remove them first, but if they represent real data, then you probably shouldn’t remove them at all. If you need to remove them to make the assumptions for some test to work, then you should report this fact when you state your results.
      When you use MI, you repeat the regression analysis a large number of times with different values for the missing data. This enables you to complete your analysis, but there is no set of values imputed for the missing data elements.

      • Louis Delamarre says:


        Thank you for your advice. They’re very helpful.
        I just used the Mi function on Excel (Mac). It doesn’t worked well in my case, indicating only descriptive stats, frequency of missing data and patterns of missing data.
        But the new sheet made for the series of imputations returns the mark #VALUE.
        I don’t know what i did wrong.. Have you already faced this issue? (problem linked to binary data, even using a table of constraints?, nb of variables?…)

        Thank you.


        • Charles says:

          Louis, if you send me an Excel file with your data and analysis, I will try to figure out what is going wrong.

  20. Keshk says:

    Hi Charles ,

    could you provide me with the excel sheet for the posted example as i tried to do it my self but i couldn’t


  21. Goyal says:

    Hello Charles,

    I have two questions:
    1. If using TRIMMEAN function, how to decide if we should take a cut off value as 20% or 30%?
    2. If using TRIMMEAN, and for example it removes 2 lowest data points (0,1 for example) but I have one more data point as “1” so it will remove one “1” and will not remove the another “1” so is that nor wrong?
    2. Which is the best method to remove outliers out of TRIMMEAN, IQR method and mean / std dev method (the one with +-2.5 cut off)?

    • Charles says:

      1. There is no definitive answer here. You should enter a value that is big enough to eliminate any outlier; ideally you want the smallest such value.
      2. That is correct. If you want both to be removed, then enter a higher cutoff value.
      3. Again, there is no definitive answer.

  22. Joe S. says:

    Dear Charles,

    I am trying trim my data set that is structured like this:

    Object Observation Trimmed observations
    A 10
    A 12
    A 24
    …. ….
    B 123
    B 111
    B 500
    …. ….
    C 1234
    C 1100
    C 5000

    My objective here is to trim all observations belonging to Object A, followed by Object B, and so on. I can imagine doing them manually would be very time consuming, especially if there are many different objects.

    Is there a way which I can code the cells on the column “Trimmed observations” such that I can trim the collective observations of each object separately from the entire observations of all objects combined? The scale of observations from A, B, and C are very different, and trimming their combined data would surely result from removal of data from A and C.

    Hope you can help! Thank you so much.

  23. Patrick de Gooijer says:

    Hello Charles,

    I have a question regarding the example for using the function WINSORIZE and TRIMDATA. I downloaded the function as a plug-in. And I also downloaded the example. But I have a problem. When I use these functions I only get the data in C4 or E4. I don’t get the data for the rest of the column. How do I get data for the entire column and not just for the first one?

    Kind regards,

    • Charles says:

      TRIMDATA and WINSORIZE are array functions, and so you can’t simply press Enter to get the complete output. Instead you need to highlight the range where the output goes and press Ctrl-Shft-Enter. See the following webpage for more details on how to handle array functions.
      Array Formulas and Functions

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