# Split-Half Methodology

One way to test the reliability of a test is to repeat the test. This is not always possible. Another approach, which is applicable to questionnaires, is to divide the test into two halves and compare the results.

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### 177 Responses to Split-Half Methodology

1. Jairo says:

Big help, thank you!

2. Parto says:

Hi, Thank you very much for a very helpful article. I have downloaded The Real Statistics Resource Pack to my Excel. However, it doesn`t have SPLIT_HALF function. Any suggestions?
Thanks and kind regards

• Charles says:

Hi Parto,
You are correct. The Real Statistics Resource Pack does not contain a SPLIT_HALF function at present, but the referenced webpage does contain an example of how to calculate the split half method in Excel (namely Example 1). You can find the worksheet that carries out the calculations for Example 1 in the Examples Workbook. You can download the Example Workbook for free at http://www.real-statistics.com/free-download/real-statistics-examples-workbook/.
Charles

• Parto says:

Thanks very much for your prompt answer. I have it now.

3. Groover says:

Hi Charles,
Any thoughts how to calculate Spearmann-brown for Likert 5 point scale answers? How to split the answers?

Thank you very much

• Charles says:

Groover,
The calculation is exactly the same as described in the referenced page. You can split the questions by odd-even as described on the referenced webpage or first half of the questions vs. second half of the questions. It is important to decide on which approach to use in advance and not after you have seen the results (which are likely to be different); alternatively you can report on both approaches.
Charles

4. Tjang Kian Liong says:

Consice and clear. It is a great help for me. Thank you very much.

5. Dwipta Dey says:

Thanks for this clear and concise explanation. Can I use the rank order method to calculate the r ? Is it good enough to establish the reliability of a structured knowledge questionnaire?

• Charles says:

I would guess that it depends on the motivation you have for using the rank order correlation (i.e. Spearman’s rho) instead of the Pearson’s r.
Charles

6. JISHA says:

CAN YOU HELP ME WITH THIS QUESTION PLZ?
COMPUTE RANK ORDER CO-ORELATION FOR THE FOLLOWING

R1 : 1, 8, 3, 7, 5, 10, 4, 6, 2, 9
R2 : 1, 8, 4, 7, 5, 9, 3, 6, 2, 10

7. Iqra Aazmat says:

Thank you very much for giving very much clear concept! i got the idea about split- half reliability.

8. Ratul dad says:

Thank u sir. I have been benifited. I m ever heart to u sir

9. ajecus says:

sir, is this a tool used for item analysis? the reliability of an item?
asap reply is much appreciated.
THANK U

• Charles says:

Please see the webpage Item Analysis for a description of the available item analysis capabilities.
Charles

• ajecus says:

I seem confused. So, this can’t be used to compute the reliability of the test items you’ve created? I meant the Item-Reliability Index in Item Analysis.

Pls help sir.

Thank you.

• Charles says:

The Split-Half Methodology can be used as an item reliability index.
Charles

10. Karisa Walker says:

Great information! Is it possible to get a reliable score using the split half method with just a 10 questions survey?

• Charles says:

Karisa,
Yes, you will get a reliable score for the split half method with just 10 questions. The real question is whether the 10 question survey is reliable (i.e. internally consistent). I don’t have a simple answer for this question. All I can say is that, in general, more questions increases reliability. However, if you add a question which is poorly worded, tricky and/or testing something different from the other questions, then reliability can decrease.
Charles

• Karisa Walker says:

Thanks for the response. It’s a student survey for elementary students so I was worried that more questions would prompt false responses. Decisions….Decisions….

• arpana says:

plz sir can you help by replying in my mail …plz even I am not getting Spearman’s method of theory development..the tetrad equation he ussed and the tetrad criterion and all…Also the factor analytic methods I am not being able to use to solve questions practically.Also how to derive cronbach from split half …I have my net exam plz reply soon

• Charles says:

I don’t understand your question.
Charles

11. Karisa Walker says:

I have another question…So if I am giving my survey to 430 students, do I need to conduct the split half test on a small number of the sample to see if its reliable before I give it to all of the students?

• Charles says:

Karisa,
That is the usual approach. Note that you can use Cronbach’s Alpha instead of split half.
Charles

12. GYPSA K P says:

can we use split half for 15 item tool

• Charles says:

Yes, but you need to leave one item out. Probably it is better to use Cronbach’s alpha.
Charles

13. Thanks a lot. It’s a very nice presentation for the researcher. May Allah bless u. You may present all of the methods of reliability and validity test with formula and indications for excel or SPSS. You may also present directions regarding test of hypotheses.
best regards

14. Meera says:

Dear Sir,

I’ve been searching for some one who could explain Cronbach’s alpha and Spearman-Brown split-half. You have done a wonderful job. Thanks a million. I have a doubt though. Plz do forgive me if itz undiluted stupidity (I’m new to Statistics). Do they (Cronbach’s alpha and Spearman-Brown split-half) test both reliability and validity or just one and not the other? I’ve seen a study where the researcher used Spearman-Brown split-half to test reliability and Cronbach’s alpha for validity. Hence the question.

Meera.

• Charles says:

Meera,
Reliability only.
Charles

• Meera says:

Thank you Sir. How then can we measure validity?

Meera.

• Charles says:

Meera,
Most of the tests that you find in this website can be viewed as tests for validity. The actual test used depends on what you are trying to determine.
Charles

• Meera says:

Thanks 🙂

15. claudette phoenix says:

Thank you. The information is extremely helpful. Can I use the split half methodology with a test that has two sections – Multiple Choice and Essay? Can I, instead of using odd vs even , use multiple choice vs essay?

• Charles says:

Claudette,
The idea of the Split-Half Method is to make a random split of the test items. Odd/even is just one way to do this. However, multiple choice vs essay may not be a random split, and so I would be a bit cautious of using such a split.
Charles

• Claudette says:

Thank you.

16. Alam says:

Dear sir,
Do I need to test the reliability of a likert-type 5 point scale with the data from a pilot study before applying the instrument for the final study? I am new in statistics please answer.

Alam

• Charles says:

Alam,
You don’t have to do this, but it is commonly done.
Charles

• Alam says:

Dear Sir,
If I use without testing the reliability of the instrument and it is discovered during analysis that the instrument was not reliable then I have to do the research again. That is my understanding, I might be wrong. That why is it not right to check the reliability of the instrument through a pilot study?

I am expecting your clarification of the matter so that, I can get a clear idea.
Regards,

Nabiul

• Charles says:

Alam,
It is best to find out if there are problems early (e.g. with a pilot with say 30 subjects) rather than for the full experiment (e.g. after you have given the questionnaire to say 2,000 people). If reliability is a problem you can fix the questionnaire and then repeat the pilot. If you only check reliability after giving the questionnaire to 2,000 people you will need to repeat the questionnaire with all 2,000 people if you find there is a problem.
Charles

• Alam says:

Thanks lot sir for your clear answer!!

17. Denise says:

Thank You! 🙂 big help. I have 2 questions though. What if the correlation coefficient’s equation was (0/0), is that considered to be 0.00 for that matter? What is the interpretation of a 0.00 for correlation coefficient and spearman-brown correction? Thank You!

• Charles says:

Denise,
A correlation coefficient of zero means there is no correlation, which in this case indicates very poor reliability. Spearman-Brown is undefined (can’t divide by zero), but there is no need to calculate it since the zero value tells you all you need to know.
Charles

18. Binu says:

Dear Sir,

I would like assess the reliability of a questionnaire in an experimental study. I have done pre and post test among 15 samples as my main study will be 150. How do I calculate reliability?

• Charles says:

The usual approach is to use Cronbach’s Alpha. Although this measurement has a number of flaws, it is the commonly used measurement.
Charles

19. jane robson says:

I am analyzing data from subjective scoresheets (10 questions regarding performance and scoring against performance). I am feeling that the questions are subjective and being scored differently by different scorers. How can I measure the reliability. I used Spearman Brown (.065)& Pearsons (.12) but am questioning this. Please assist

• Charles says:

Jane,
Please describe the scoring used in a little more detail. Are people rating some characteristics using a Likert scale (say 1 to 5) or is this a typical multiple choice question test or something else?
Charles

20. MEJA says:

hi, i have the problem on finding the spearman brown when the correlation coefficient is negative number

• Charles says:

If your correlation coefficient is negative, then you already know that reliability is very low and so you really don’t need to bother with spearman brown.
Using spearman brown without any sort of correction will result in a correlation less than -1, which is not very desirable. I would guess that the correct calculation is to apply spearman brown to the absolute value of the correlation coefficient and then negate the result, but I have not seen this done before.
Charles

21. Praise says:

after splitting the items into 2. can we use pearson r to get d correlation coefficient before stepping it up with spearman brown correction formula? thank u.

• Charles says:

Please explain what you mean by “d correlation coefficient”.
Charles

22. Fatin says:

There are many ways to determine reliability as internal consistency, repeat test, split-half,….. .
Do the reliability coefficient are the same with all?

• Charles says:

No, the tests can generate different results. See Figure 8 of the webpage Cronbach’s Alpha
Charles

23. Candice says:

Hi there,

I was hoping you could help me with my calculations! Im not sure if im doing mine 100% correctly! ;-( Do you have an email address?

• Charles says:

Candice,
Charles

24. Unwana says:

Tnks so much for this…my question is ,how do I go about testing for my 31 question questionnaire’s reliability , do I go ahead and administer to my sample of 110 or do I first administer them to some members. Answer asap please.

• Charles says:

Either is possible. Sometimes you administer the test to a smaller sample to check whether the reliability is good. In this way you can change the questionnaire before giving it to the full sample.
Charles

25. Jen says:

Hi Charles,
I’m totally new to the field of statistics and still puzzled….
In my data sample Spearman Brown prophecy = 0.35, and KR20=0.735.
KR20 indicates good reliability, the value for SB is rather low. What does it mean? Why are the values so different?

Thank you!
Jen

• Charles says:

Jen, I would have to see the data. You can send me an Excel file with your data (see Contact Us for my email address).
Charles

26. Pree says:

Hi
For my thesis I have section two sections, first is multiple choice questionnaire and second is 5 point likert scale. Can I use split half for Mcq and crohnbach alpha for likert scale? Is it right?

27. venki says:

Hi, what is the minimum number of respondents require for checking the reliability in split-half method

28. Helen says:

sir, is focus group discussion and in depth interview a rich instrument for data collection on rural farmers information needs and seeking behaviour towards climate change adaptation. thank

• Charles says:

Probably, but I am not an expert on rural farmers.
Charles

29. C J says:

Goodmorning sir.
Pls i want to know the appropriate ways of reporting different reliability analysis, eg split half, cronbach, f text, etc, and wen my result is significant

• Charles says:

If your result is clearly high enough (see my answer to your other comment), you can say the following

The XYZ questionnaire has a high level of internal consistency based on a Cronbach’s alpha of .85.

If the value is low, say .40, then say it has a “low” or “unacceptable level …” With a value such as .65, then I would probably say something like

The XYZ questionnaire has internal consistency based on Cronbach’s alpha of .65.

With Cronbach’s alpha, I would also report on what the value is when each of the questions are removed

… when question #7 is removed then Cronbach’s alpha increases to .75, which is the greatest increase in Cronbach’s alpha based on the removal of one question.

Charles

30. cj says:

what is the significant level of spearman Brown, at what point can i say that the test is reliable or unreliable

• Charles says:

There is no universally accepted answer to this question, although you will most commonly see that a value of .7 or higher is acceptable, although sometimes you will see that .6 or higher is acceptable.
Charles

31. Armelle says:

Dear Sir,

I have an exercise: an algebra test was given to 20 students and for the ten items of the test the answers are 1 or 0. A split-half procedure was conducted. Will I use Spearman-Brown as an alternate method for estimating reliability or KR20 (because it is a dichotomous test)?
Thanks

• Charles says:

You can use either the split half method (with Spearman-Brown) or KR20 to test for reliability. As you said, you can use KR20 since the data is dichotomous. Also since the data is dichotomous, KR20 is equivalent to Cronbach’s alpha.
Charles

32. FATEMEH says:

Hello dear Charles,

I have constructed a tool to be used in my Ph.D project, but as am new in the statistical field so am confused and need help. I was hoping if you could help me out with the methods and calculations! I,m not sure if i am doing mine correctly! I appreciate if you don,t mind to guide me.

Regard

• Charles says:

Please let me know what sort of help and guidance you are looking for.
Charles

33. mubarak ibrahim says:

Very interested and helpful text. Thanks alot

34. Andreea says:

Dear Charles,

I am testing (as a uni assignment) the reliability of PRT Scale (questionnaire) and I don’t quite understand what requirements does your data need to meet before you can run a split-half. The scale originally had 25 questions (items) but we excluded one due to not meeting the .7 Cronbach’s Alpha value. I should perhaps mention that the questionnaire is in 3 different subscales with less than 10 items in each. Hope this makes sense.

Thank you!

Best regards

• Charles says:

Dear Andreea,
I can’t think of any assumptions for using the split half reliability, except to make sure that the questions are split in some way (e.g. odd-even) which doesn’t bias the result.
Also the questions need to test the same concept; otherwise you need to run separate split-half analyses for each concept (i.e. for the questions that relate to each concept). If the subscales that you refer to are for different concepts, then you will need to run three different split-half analyses.
One last point. The number of questions being measured also has an impact on the reliability score. See, for example, the website http://blog.questionmark.com/how-many-questions-do-i-need-on-my-assessment.
Charles

35. Lira says:

Hello!
In one dimension I have only 3 items. Should I calcualte split-half coef. or are 3 items not enough? Well, SPSS does calculate it, but I’m note sure if it makes any sense to calculate it…

Thank you very much!

• Charles says:

Lira,
You certainly can calculate it, but I would guess that confidence interval for answer is quite wide, probably making the result not very useful.
Charles

36. Babe says:

Sir, doing a comparative study between two groups using the same tool. Want to calculate reliability. I plan to use split half method. My question is… Should I split the tool into two for each group or can I use the two different groups as two halves for the same tool?

• Charles says:

Babe,
I would need more information to give a definitive answer, but most likely you need to make two separate tests, one for each group.
Charles

37. Niels says:

Hi Charles,

Half of my items should be reverse-scored before doing the analysis. Does your set of macros allow for reverse-scoring multiple items?

Best,

Niels

• Charles says:

Niels,
No, you will need to do that manually.
Charles

• Niels says:

Hi Charles,

Thanks for your reaction. I have a different question. Whenever I use one of your Reliability Procedures I get an error saying:

Cutoff must be a number between 0 and .5

It has a standard value of “0.27”. Only when I change the point into a comma I get things to work. Is this an issue with my version of Excel, or a more general problem?

Best!

Niels

PS I am using your functions for didactic purposes in a methodology course

• Charles says:

Niels,
For some languages comma is used for the decimal symbol, while others use the period. Everything works fine in either case, except when I provide a decimal such as 0.27 as a default. I have tried to fix this problem many times, but I still haven’t come up with the right solution. Fortunately the workaround is simple, namely you just need to re-enter the value, as you have done.
Charles

38. Rona says:

Hi,

Is the split test still applicable to a test it lacks precision and the questions do not coincide with each other?

• Charles says:

Rona, sorry but I understand your question.
Charles

39. Hassan says:

Hi
I want to do split-half method to test the internal consistency reliability of a new questionnaire, which contains 6 domains, and each domain include different questions; for example, one domain includes 1 question while other domain includes 10 questions. So may question is which is better, getting the average for each domain then doing split-half reliability for these 6 domains as 6 questions or splitting the questionnaire according to the actual questions (in this case how can deal with if the one domian contains more than questions and one of them has sub- divisions, i.e., 2a, 2b,23……
Kind regards,
Hassan

• Charles says:

Hassan,
I suggest that you calculate a separate split-half (or Cronbach’s alpha) measure for the questions that relate to each of the domains. This approach won’t be very useful for the domain that only has one question.
Charles

40. Amy says:

Hello,
Does the coefficient found give any information about the validity of the test?

Thank you

• Charles says:

No. Just reliability.
Charles

41. Lindah says:

hi,I am doing an exam tomorrow, but I am
trying to understand the split half method but I’m not getting it,after splitting into half’s how do you find your correlation coefficient, help me please

• Charles says:

Lindah,
You just calculate the correlation coefficient between the two halves. In Excel this is done using the CORREL function.
Charles

42. Abbass says:

Hello Sir,
I wonder if the Split-Half Methodology applies on school exams (Multiple choice assessments) to test its reliability

thank you

• Charles says:

Hello Abbass,
Yes, you can use the split-half method (or Cronbach’s alpha) in this case. Remember to code the answer as 1 = correct answer and 0 = incorrect answer.
Charles

43. Bec says:

Many thanks Charles for a fabulous explanation!
Once we have calculated our split-half (and in my case applied the Spearman-Brown Prophecy correction), how do you suggest we interpret the findings?
Is there a universally agreed set of categories for high/mod/low correlation for the split-half? such as those put forward by Landis & Kotch (1977) for agreement analyses.
many thanks for your help,
bec

• Charles says:

Bec,
From what I can see from the literature, there isn’t universal agreement even about the interpretation of Landis & Kotch (1977). The best I can say is to use the guidelines for Cronbach’s alpha (see Cronbach’s Alpha), but again caution is advised since there isn’t universal agreement about these guidelines.
Charles

44. Nemat says:

Dear Dr. Charles
Can I use split-Split-Half for 5 point Likert or ordinal scale?

Best Regards

• Charles says:

Yes, you can use split-half with likert-scaled or ordinal data.
Charles

45. Ali says:

I will like to know the conditions that calls for the use of split-half with likert-scale or ordinal data.

Best Regards

• Charles says:

I don’t know of any conditions, except that we are assuming that the distances between adjacent items in the scale are equal; i.e. if you are using 5 scale Likert (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), that the distance between 2 and 1 is the same as the distance between 4 and 3, etc.
Charles.

• Ali says:

Thanks for your reaction.
I designed a questionnaire with 10 statement (5 point Likert) for measuring entrepreneurial behaviour. Can I use the split-half for calculate reliability in this questionnaire?

Best Regards

• Charles says:

Yes

• nemat says:

Thank you very much.

46. Sulaimanramon says:

Please sir , which instrumentation can i use use 25 questions questionnaire of 4 likers scale distribute to 120 people thanks

• Charles says:

I don’t completely understand your question, but it is likely that the answer is Cronbach’s Alpha, although the Split Half method can be used as well.
Charles

47. Gideon says:

good day sir, i need your help on split half reliability, how can i divide the scores to get my even and odd numbers?

• Charles says:

Gideon,
If the number of items is not very large, you can simply copy and paste. If the number is large you will need to be a bit more create in using Excel. In any case, the Real Statistics Reliability data analysis tool can do all this work for you.
Charles

48. Jerry says:

Great work Charles. Please help me with the appropriate design for this project topic “the influence of locality on life satisfaction”.

• Charles says:

Jerry,
Sorry, but you haven’t provided enough information for me to answer your question.
Charles

• Jerry says:

Sorry for the in incomplete statement above “The influence of locality on life satisfaction” is intended to study if locality really influences the degree to which one is satisfied with life. The research is to be conducted using survey method in the urban and rural areas. Not more than 30 participants will be used. But my main problem is the appropriate design and statistics to be used.

• Charles says:

Jerry,
There are a myriad of possibilities for the design and statistics to be used. E.g.if you simply want to determine people in urban areas are more or less satisfied with their life, you could create a questionnaire which measures life satisfaction (or use a pre-existing questionnaire) and give it to 15 people in the city and 15 people in the countryside. You could then use a 2 sample t test to determine whether there is a statistical difference between the mean response from the two groups.
Charles

49. maria says:

Hi Charles,
I have question. I would like to compute the split half reliability test by odd and even. However, my instrument has 33 items and one half will be larger than the other, it does not affect the result?
thank you

• Charles says:

Maria,
It should not affect the result.
Charles

50. Indra Kumar says:

After conducting Splitt half test, which value is to be considered in analysis, either correlation between forms or spearman browns coefficient or gutmann-split half coefficient?

• Charles says:

I use spearman browns coefficient, but some prefer gutmann-split half coefficient.
Charles

51. June says:

Thank you for this. 2 questions: First, why aren’t there any p-values associated with this test? Second, can I use this test for consistency among 3 items? SPSS will run the test but one of the halves only has a single item.

• Charles says:

June,
1. This is not a test and so there is no p-value. The output is a measurement (i.e. a statistic).
2. You can use the split-half method with an odd number of items (including 3). The number of odd items will be one more than the number of even items; this doesn’t really make any difference.
Charles

52. Mhick says:

Hi sir..

I have a question what happen if i split my questionnaires into even number only? Like for example if may questionnaire i put in number 2 and the other question is in number 6.However there is the same question.

• Charles says:

Mhick,
Sorry, but I don’t know if I really understand your question.
It doesn’t matter how you number your questions. If you look at the questions in order there are even numbered questions and odd numbered questions. If you are repeating the identical question, it would be good to put the two versions in different split halves, although the distance between the questions in the questionnaire is probably relevant.
Charles

53. Sajitha Ferry says:

Dear Sir,

I am doing a research on the feasibility of opening a child care centre. My survey questionnaire include 10 questions on parents preference in choosing a child care centre. Some are ‘yes’ ‘no’ questions and the rest with maximum options. Can you please advice me whether I can test the reliability of the questionnaire and if yes, how?

• Charles says:

Sajitha,
I’m sorry, but what are questions with “maximum options”?
Charles

54. riya says:

if split half reliablity coefficient is 0.67 then is it reliable?

• Charles says:

Riya,
This is a judgement call. Some would say that the value needs to be at least .7. There isn’t universal agreement about what is an acceptable value.
Charles

55. Nithin says:

what are the steps in computing coefficient of split-half reliability ?

• Charles says:

Nithin,
I believe that these are stated in the referenced webpage. Please explain what you mean.
Charles

56. gedion says:

thanks for the info.

57. wale says:

Pls, can i use split half methodology on multiple choice questionnaire, if yes how will i group them.

• Charles says:

Wale,
You can use the split-half method for multiple choice questions. Use the coding 1 for the correct response and 0 for an incorrect response. You can split odd numbered questions versus even numbered questions.
Charles

58. Eleanor says:

I have a 98-item multiple choice test that I want to pilot test. However, the school just gave an hour for the testing. Is it ok if I split the test into two and give half to one class and the other half to another class? If this can be done, how do I compute for the reliability of the entire test/instrument. Thanks.

• Charles says:

Eleanor,
The problem with this approach is that you may be testing the difference between the two classes rather than the internal consistency.
Charles

59. kamlesh says:

I have a utilization of health services questionnaire. It has 42 questions. some questions have multiple right answers , then how do i do the scoring for split half reliability test?

• Charles says:

Kamlesh,
You can score each question by 1 for a correct answer and 0 for an incorrect answer.
Charles

60. My instrument is a 20 questions, made up 10 multiple choice questions A- D and 10 essay questions. Both the multiple choice and essay questions equal scoring pattern. Can use split half method to determine the reliabiity? And how

• Charles says:

Jonathan,
How will you score the essay questions? Do you give partial credit?
Are the multiple choice questions testing someone’s knowledge or are they to gain demographic information (e.g. level of education, etc.)?
Charles

61. Tiffany Prete says:

Thank you for your software. I can not get the split-half methodology to work for me. I’m unclear if I’m suppose to use one of the functions and type in =SPLIT_HALF(numbers). I cannot find split half on any of the functions. Could you please help me with this. Thank you.

• Tiffany Prete says:

I figured it out. Thanks anyways!

• Autumn says:

how did you do it?

62. gourab dewan says:

Hi
In a questionnaire based study reliability of the instrument is essential. I have a study about knowledge of vaccine preventable disease among nursing students. Nursing students require to take certain vaccines to protect themselves from infection. we selected 8 such diseases. The questionnaire assessed
1. how many students can correctly identify the selected 8 diseases as vaccine preventable (ie. knowledge). we make a sum scale of knowledge 0 to 8 ( 1 for correct response and zero for incorrect
2. how many students has received advise to take vaccines and from which source

comprising of 13 questions :
A) 4 on socio-demographic data (age, gender, monthly income, level of study ), they cannot be given 1 or zero score for response.

B) 8 closed ended questions (yes /no) about identification of 8 diseases – they can be scored 1 for yes and zero for no

c) 1 close ended questions on source of advise to take vaccine ( paper / internet/ friend) . the responses can not be numbered like previous yes/no close ended question

my question is can i use half spilt theory to evaluate reliability of this questionnaire?

i cannot give score for every answers made in sociodemographic section (ie they cannot be scaled)

similar thing is applicable to source of advise section. frequency of different sources can be estimated but they cannot be scaled like knowledge score.

its only the knowledge scale part which can be put under test by HS method.

My question is in this type questionnaire does reliability depends only on the scaled measures (e.g knowledge scale) and not on unscalable measures (e.g. demographic data, source of knowledge)

• Charles says:

It is unlikely that you will accomplish anything by performing reliability testing on demographic questions. You could use split-half or Cronbach’s alpha on knowledge questions.
Charles

63. Nelly says:

Please i dont understand how the correlation coefficient came about… U only showed the formula and the answer. Please show the working let it guide me for my research paper

64. Nicolette says:

Hi.
I am currently translating a questionanaire from english version to my native language.
the original English version was tested using the Guttman Split Half for its reliability.
Therefore for the translated version, do I have to use the same reliability test or can I use Cronbach’s alpha to test for its reliability?
Thank you

• Charles says:

Nicolette,
You don’t have to use the same reliability test.
Charles

• arpana says:

hey can you please explain me how to calculate t-value from percentile rank. And how to infer Cronbach alpha from split half reliability.I am not able to catch up stats can you help?

• Charles says:

Arpana,
I don’t know how to calculate a t value form percentile rank nor how to infer Cronbach’s alpha from Split-half reliability.
Charles

• Nicolette says:

Thanks Charles.

May I know what is the difference between Spearman and Guttman split half?

• Charles says:

Nicolette,
Thanks for your comment. It has prompted me to add more information about the the split-half methodology. This will include a description of Guttman’s split-half. This should appear within the next week.
Charles

65. Autumn says:

Hello,
Can you tell me how to use the split-half method in Excel? I don’t see an option for that method. I just need to know the steps to use the function in Excel.
Thanks,

• Charles says:

Autumn,
Excel doesn’t have a function of data analysis tool to perform the split-half method.
The Real Statistics add-in to Excel provides the SPLITHALF function to perform this method. Alternatively, you can use the Reliability data analysis tool and choose the Cronbach’s Alpha option. This will generate two forms of the split-half method.
Charles

66. MS Wong says:

If I have 15 question of likert scales, can I use the split half method in excel
Thanks

• Charles says:

Yes. This is explained on the referenced webpage.
Shortly, I will add some new capabilities, but the current version of the webpage can still be used.
Charles

• MS Wong says:

The first half will be the sum of the 7question and the second half will be the sum of the 8question
I am using your mentioned formula
=CORREL
and got the r =0.56
Can I say it have a moderate reliable result? Or I just got a low reliable result
Thanks for your promply replied.

67. Nagar says:

My instrument is 30 question for multiple choice quesion and each scoring for right answer is one Mark and incorrect answer is zero mark can I use split half method and how

• Charles says:

Nagar,
Yes, you can certainly use the split-half method. Just mark each question as 0 or 1, as you described and use the approach described on the referenced webpage.
Charles

68. Hi again Charles. I sent a note yesterday about calculating SplitHalf reliabilities yielding several that were >1.0. However, I just realized that the ones yielding Spearman-Brown SHs > 1.o were negatively correlated (due to the fact that what I entered were difference scores). I just re-reran the with my own formulae after calculating the absolute-values to make the correlations positive and yielded more reasonable results (i.e., reliabilities <= 1.0).

Thank you again for your wonderful tools.

Bill

• Charles says:

Bill,
Good to hear that you were able to resolve the problem yourself.
Glad you like the tools.
Charles

69. Jack says:

I have a 20-point multiple choice test on measures of centrality. Is it appropriate to use the split-half to test its reliability?

Thank you!

• Charles says:

Jack,
Yes, you can.
Charles

• Jack says:

Thank you Charles!

Why is it appropriate to use the split-half method to test the reliability of my instrument?

70. Kamakshi Gupte says:

Hi. For construct validity what test to be used. I have used cronbach alpha and the reliability score is good. This is for 18 questions, 5 likert scale on psychological stress. Thank you in advance.

• Charles says:

Validity depends on the specific information domain, and so I don’t have an easy answer for you without more information. Sometimes you could show that the results are comparable to another test that has already been shown to be valid.
Charles

71. Paul says:

Hi Charles I’m doing a research regarding professional teaching delivery with 4 factors:teaching skills, instructional materials, classroom management, and content knowledge. I have 10 questions for each factor for a total of 40 items. What tool can u advise me to utilize for the reliability of the questionnaire?

• Charles says:

Paul,
One approach is to calculate four separate Cronbach’s alpha for each block of 10 questions (for each factor).
Charles

hi sir. i m constructing a scale. its reliabiltiy coeff (odd even) comes to 0.619 and brown prophecy r comes 0.764. wt is ur analysis regarding its reliability. actually it is said that r between .7 to .8 is considered good for the scale. shud i go for the pilot study again r there u think is no need to worry abt….

• Charles says:

This seems to me to be a reasonably acceptable result.
Charles

73. tuns says:

Hi,pls can u tell me the statistics for split half method becus my supervisor said there is a statistic for it and I dnt think I knw it but am guessing it should be the formula but not sure……pls can you tell me the statistics?

• Charles says:

The referenced webpages show possible split-half formulas.
Charles

74. Cenova says:

Greetings Charles.
I have 15 question of a test. I want to calculate the reliability of the test.
The first half of the test contains 8 items (1-8) and I calculate the total points from these items. The second half of the test contains 7 items (9-15) and I calculate the total points from the second half. Then I calculate the Sperman Brown formula between these two halves. Is it true that I thought so? Would it be correct to create equivalent halves like 8 and 7? And is there any source that I can refer to?
Thank you very much

75. soupriye zibima says:

Hi Charles, thanks for the good work. I adapted the WHO STEPS instrument for identification of risk factors of Non-communicable diseases to identify risk factors of essential hypertension via a retrospective hospital based case control study in my locality. the WHO STEPS instrument only seek to identify previous occurrences and their pattern among cases and controls with a combination of YES and NO questions, MULTIPLE CHOICE questions and OPEN ENDED questions which do no have an actual scoring system. I have also not found any previous psychometric properties of the WHO STEPS instrument. please, how do I validate and establish reliability of the adapted instrument

• Charles says:

Soupriye,
I am not familiar with the WHO STEPS instrument, and so I would need more information about it before I could help you. Is the problem that you are having the fact that (1) there is a mixture of question types and/or (2) there is no scoring system for the open-ended questions? Or is there some other issue?
Charles

76. Kul says:

Sir, I constructed a Socio-economic status scale for students which has multiple choice & one word answer type questions. These questions are related to parental education, their income, living style etc. How I do item analysis and how to get its split-half reliability?

• Charles says:

Kul,
You can do both of these tasks as described on the website provided you are able to give the answers a score that can be viewed as correct or partially correct. Also see Item Analysis.
Charles

77. Mohammed Al-amin says:

Pls Charles is there any reasons for not conducting pilot study in Mixed methods research

• Charles says:

Mohammed,
Given that I don’t know the context for your question about a pilot study in mixed methods research, I don’t know of any reason for not conducting such a study.
Charles

78. Margie Way says:

Hi Charles,

I am wondering if I can use the split halves method when giving partial credit and how this can be done.

Thank you!

79. Esther Onyango says:

Hi charles, in my thesis i got scores of cronbach’s alpha ranging between 0.6 and 0.8. My supervisor asked me to explain how i dealt with the errors. kindly explain to me what i can do since am not very good in statistics. Thanks

• Charles says:

Esther,
What errors is he/she referring to?
Charles